Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory

Paper Instructions

TOPIC: Worldview Analysis and Personal Inventory
Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:
1. In 250-300 words, explain the *Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the **perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
2. In 250-300 words, explain what *scientism is and describe *two of the main arguments against it.
3. In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the *worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview:
1. What is ultimate reality?
2. What is the nature of the universe?
3. What is a human being?
4. What is knowledge?
5. What is your basis of ethics?
6. What is the purpose of your existence?
Remember to *support *your *reflection *with *the *topic *study *materials.
While *APA 7TH Edition style is not required for the body of this assignment, sources not more than FIVE years if possible; solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA 7TH Edition formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

1. Explanation of the *Christian perspective of the *nature of *spirituality and *ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism is clear, detailed, and demonstrates a deep understanding of the subject. Explanation is supported by topic study materials.
2. Explanation of *scientism is clear and accurate. Explanations of *two main arguments against *scientism are clear and insightful. Details are clearly supported by topic study materials.
3. *Each of the *worldview *questions is answered clearly and with deep personal insight.
4. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
5. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.


Christian Perspective V. Postmodern Relativism

The Christian view focuses on the deity to whom humans have relationship with. Spiritual practices and interests are transcending the boundaries of medicine and religion to become essential to all facets of medical practice, including ethics.  Spirituality and healthcare belong together and are connected. The Christian approach has been widely used because both the healthcare industry and Christian domains of human experience and knowledge are focused on the holistic nature of the human person (Igboin, 2015). Holistic care is now the standard of care. Thus spiritually is viewed as both theological and symbolic. The theological prism explains the concept of God. God is represented in the power as all-powerful external being (Igboin, 2015). The Bible presents Christians with belief systems with which to explain the meaning of life, its purpose and the truth. With this knowledge, Christians can seek and attain a divine state for all life experiences. As much as people make life choices, spirituality makes certain we remain grounded in complying with God’s guidance. Moreover, Christian approach accepts that external being guides all fate, including the fate to grant healing.  Christian symbols used in healthcare often help point to the power of the reality being represented.

On the other hand, postmodern relativism holds that healing derives from self-divine within (Zavada, 2019). It denies the existence of absolute truth, especially the existence of God. This liberal approach maintains that the services and therapies given by healthcare professionals are aimed at aiding patients to achieve their healing. The nurses and physicians serve to provide spiritual, psychological and physical care to help empower clients achieve recovery through varied self-healing practices. From the viewpoint of ethics, postmodern relativism posits that conflicting ethical arguments can be either wrong or right. It is therefore advisable not to discard an ethical argument simply because it contradicts another argument.  With this awareness, physicians and nurses readily accept that they have monopoly on the truth regarding spirituality and ethics (Zavada, 2019). Because postmodern relativism allows for the delivery of multicultural care by accepting diversity, it is especially helpful to healthcare sector in multicultural societies.


Scientism shares the conviction that sciences will find answers to all questions man is interested to know (Hughes, 2012). According to Burnnet (2018), scientism talks science offer the only way of knowing. Scientism claims that there are no limits to the ability of science to address all problems humankind wants to solve. This attitude is shared among non-scientists rather than scientists. to are the only reliable means knowledge be gained. They think science the source science of truth. Scientism recognizes experimental methods and human reason as responsible for the knowledge one acquires (Moreland, 2018). Hughes demonstrates that science has strengths and weakness as a tool of gaining knowledge and that other disciplines has room to add value to the attainment of knowledge.

One major argument leveled against scientism is that it’s not hinged on scientific objects. Thought it is a source of knowledge, science can only give knowledge for that which it has tested. Scientism studies, for example, natural elements and process in order to make inferences and draw conclusions. In order to arrive at such conclusions, science has to rely on some non-science methods like logic, memory and inspection. Thus science is able to provide insight based on the knowledge drawn from non-science. But since logic, memory and inspection on which science relies on do not count as knowledge, it makes no sense to consider hard sciences as source of knowledge. The second argument against scientism is the self-referential incoherence.  The premise of scientism that only hard sciences can offer knowledge and absolute truth is in itself an end-product of natural science (Moreland, 2018). This premise fails to satisfy its own criterion. It cannot be relied or believed on the ground of the standards laid down in some basic scientific research. Moreover, scientific facts and evidence are based on the present understanding of measuring instruments set in experiments.

Ultimate Reality

Bogue and Hogan (2020) define ultimate reality as a quest for the highest authority. From the Christian perspective, ultimate reality is the personal of God with whom humans have special relationship. He is the author of right and wrong, good and bad. As His creation, Humans reflect God’s goodness through showing love, mercy and compassion.  The nature of God transcends creation. Genesis 1:1 depicts God as the external ultimate reality via whom everything exists. Romans 11:36 says “for from Him and through Him and to Him are all things.”   This external being is beyond human understanding, rendering humans unable to appreciate their presence minus a strong conviction. Though shallow, my understanding of ultimate reality is informed by the nature of my spirituality. It is this thought process that basically controls my life. I believe that ultimate reality cuts across the physical and non-physical dimensions of human existence.

The Nature of the Universe

The ultimate reality is closely related to the nature of the universe. First of all, the universe is all space and time plus its contents. It is such that human life is possible. Second, it is core to my religion. The universe is God’s creation. He created it in six days after which He rested on the 7th day. Men were created in His own image and put in charge of other creations, including sustainable exploitation of environment (Grand Rapids, 2019). God also require humans to pass His love and message of God to subsequent generations as a way of making disciples across the world (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). The universe is an open system where lots of activities are being conducted. This openness has allowed interactions and development of belief systems that guide humanity.  In brief, the universe is the reflection of God. God is all of existence and thus the end of the universe.

Human Beings

From the religious perspective, a human being is a creation of God. Humans were created by God in His own image and commanded them to multiply through procreation. God also gave humans dominion over other creatures. This explains why humans are the most advanced living creatures on earth. They speak different languages, perform creative activities, and invent things to improve their lives. They exercise the freedom and freewill. However, like other living creatures, humans do suffer because they disobeyed God and broke the commandment.


The source of knowledge comes from both a deity and natural sciences. God has given man the ability to comprehend the physical world using science and the Bible. God has revealed Himself the Bible and creation. this knowledge helps man to understand his relationship with God and to depend on Him for guidance (Bogue & Hogan, 2020). Human also gain knowledge from science, albeit it is limited when it comes to morality.

What is your basis of ethics?

My ethics are informed by personal beliefs, convictions and opinions about what is right and wrong. I also base my ethics on the principle of consequentialism. Consequentialism is a theory of ethics which postulates that a given action is either good or bad based on the outcome associated with it (Östman et al., 2019). Therefore, an action which is more beneficial than harmful can be said to be ethical. In contrast, an action that leads to more harm than benefit is unethical.

In my nursing practice, I adhere to consequentialism ethics in providing care to patients. I feel that effective nursing practice involves application of ethical principles in the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of health problems (Östman et al., 2019). Whenever I am faced with a dilemma, I try to act in way that leads to maximization of good consequences. For example, I believe that lying is wrong since it can lead to bad consequences. Therefore, I try to say the truth about the conditions of patients in order to ensure that they get quality healthcare services.

Two main forms of consequentialism exist: utilitarianism and hedonism. While utilitarianism is based on the principle of maximizing human wellbeing or welfare, hedonism emphasizes on consequences that result bring pleasure (Scott, 2017). I embrace the utilitarian ethics in my practice as a nurse. For example, I sometimes attend to unconscious patients who are brought to hospital by good Samaritans. I try to do everything in order to ensure that they are revived. I do not have to get consent from them since I believe that saving human life is more important than other things.

What is the purpose of your existence?

Life is full of challenges, struggles and problems, which makes one to ask about the purpose of their existence. I am because God purposed me to serve and reflect His character to through me. Personally, I strive to live a meaningful life by attending to my duties and responsibilities and to live for Christ. The situation makes it necessary to comprehend the purpose of my existence on earth. Therefore, I personally believe in the existence of a higher power that controls the universe (Hoeck & Delmar, 2017). This power is God who created us and everything that exists. I feel that I exist to serve Him. The best way through which I try to do this is by providing healthcare services to patients who are part of his creation. Apart from serving God, I also think that I exist to serve humanity by way of helping others. In my nursing practice, I help patients by assessing their health problems, and ensuring that they receive quality healthcare services.

God created us to live in the universe. Human beings have the responsibility to take care of the universe and improve it (Hoeck & Delmar, 2017). However, some are destroying it through deforestation, terrorism, and other harmful activities. I believe that I exist to improve the universe through my work. My nurse duties such as provision of health education and counseling sessions to patients directly contribute to this purpose. Additionally, I feel that I live to learn. Learning is important for any professional since it promotes self-realization and enables one to exploit his or her full potential (Hoeck & Delmar, 2017). As a nurse, I learn through experience in my daily professional practice.


Grand Rapids. (2019). The universe plays an important role in religion: Ethics and Religion Talk. Retrieved on March 3, 2021 from

Hoeck, B., & Delmar, C. (2017). Theoretical Development in the Context of Nursing—The Hidden Epistemology of Nursing Theory. Nursing Philosophy, 19 (1).

Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054

Moreland, J. (2018). What is scientism? Retrieved on March 3, 2021 from

Östman, L., Näsman, Y., Eriksson, K., & Nyström, L. (2019). Ethos: The Heart of Ethics and Health. Nurs Ethics. 26 (1):26-36.doi: 10.1177/0969733017695655

Scott, P. A. (2017). Key Concepts and Issues in Nursing Ethics. Springer.

Zavada, J. (2019). Postmodernism definition. Retrieved on March 3, 2021 from

BogueD.W., & Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational Issues in Christian Spirituality and Ethics. Grand Canyon University

Hughes, A. (2012). Folly of Scientism. New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology & Society

Burnett, T. (2018). What is Scientism? the American Association for the Advancement of Science website. Retrieved on March 3, 2021 from

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