Principles of Health and Disease

Essay 1

George should be concerned about the possible infection of tetanus, a disease associated with rust nails or iron. Tetanus is a bacterial disease caused by Clostridium tetani, a bacterium that is found dusty and dirt that could be linked with rusted nails. Cuilfoile and Babcock (2008) establish that an injury caused by the nail would serve as an entry point for the bacteria in the body, especially given that the nail itself is already dirty and contaminated. The symptoms of tetanus include cramping of the jaw, muscle spasms, a stiff and painful body, Jerking or seizures, sweating and fever, increased pulse rate, and headache (Cuilfoile & Babcock, 2008). The severity of symptoms may vary from one person to another due to various factors.

The diagnosis of tetanus can be made through physical examination of the body, focusing on observable features associated with the diseases, such as sweating and injury that may have led to infection.  The diagnosis would also entail assessing the immunization and medical history of George, the patient, to establish if he had not received a jab to boost his immunity (Cuilfoile & Babcock, 2008). The doctor would also check out signs for tetanus, such as muscle rigidity, fever and headaches, and muscle spasms. In cases where the aforementioned diagnosis procedure has proved to be infective, a laboratory test can be explored to determine if there is another different cause of the illness (Cuilfoile & Babcock, 2008). The last option is applied where the initial assessment does not offer satisfactory answers to the cause of the patient’s illness.

Tetanus can be treated using human tetanus immune globulin (TIG), antibiotics, and proper nursing of the wound to protect it from possible infections. Vaccination can also be considered if the patient has not been immunized (Cuilfoile & Babcock, 2008). In a nutshell, tetanus is manageable through proper medical response.

Essay 2

Meningitis manifestation include signs such as high fever, vomiting, headache, cold feet and hands, metal confusion, faster breathing, pain in joints, and muscle pain. Shrader (2014) affirms that the other important symptoms for meningitis are pale skin, rashes, sensitivity to light, stiff neck, extreme sleepiness or challenges to wake up, and seizures.

The diagnosis of meningitis can be made through a spinal tap test or CT scans.

Types of Meningitis 

There are numerous types of meningitis based on causes and other factors as follows:

Bacterial Meningitis

This type of meningitis is caused by bacterial infection. It is usually deadly and calls for urgent medication.


The recommended treatment for bacterial meningitis is antibodies.


The recommended vaccination include meningococcal vaccines, pneumococcal vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccines, and the bacille Calmette-Guérin. The four vaccines target only four types of bacterial meningitis (Shrader, 2014).

Viral Meningitis

As the name suggests, viral meningitis is caused by viruses that affect the brain or the nervous system.


Viral meningitis has no known cure; it generally shows up within a period of ten days of infection, usually without the knowledge of the patient.  Antiviral drugs can be used where the need arises.


There is no known vaccination against viral meningitis, but the diseases can be prevented by keeping clean and vaccination against diseases that lead to meningitis, such as mumps and influenza.

Fungal Meningitis

Meningitis in this category is triggered by a fungal infection of the brain or the central nervous system. (2021) established that the common fungus that causes meningitis include candida, cryptococcus, and Histoplasma.


To treat fungal meningitis, it is recommended that high-dose antifungal drugs be administered to the sick.


Fungal meningitis has no vaccine.

Parasitic Meningitis

Parasitic meningitis is caused by a parasite infection on the brain or the nervous system.


There is no known vaccine for meningitis.

Amebic Meningitis

Amebic meningitis is a rare disease that is caused by amoeba infection.  The responsible amoeba for this type of meningitis is Naegleria fowleri. Therefore, there is no clear treatment and vaccine for this type of meningitis.

Essay 3

The symptoms of Presbycusis are:

  1. Difficulties in hearing high-pitched volume.
  2. Finding other people speeches slurred
  3. Trouble in getting the conversations right.
  4. Difficulties in hearing women voice than men.
  5. Finding some sounds louder, even when they are not.
  6. Tinnitus in ears.


Presbycusis can be diagnosed using a wide range of measures, among others the use of otoscope to assess the eardrum if it is damaged or has suffered inflammation. The other test is the use of an audiogram by the audiologist to determine if the ear hears well or has developed some hearing problems (Kusum, 2019).


Treatment for the hearing problem can be done through the use of hearing aids to amplify the sound and the use of assistive listening devices such as a system of closed-circuit placed in an auditorium. In extreme cases, cochlear implants: mainly used in cases of severe Presbycusis. However, the implants are only used as a last resort and where the patient can successfully undergo the simple operation to insert an implant to aid hearing. It is also worth noting that there have been experiments on whether anaesthesia drugs, such as lidocaine and propofol, can be used to treat Presbycusis, but no universal finding of their use in treating the disease.

Macular Degeneration symptoms of macular degeneration include blurred visuals – where a straight line often appears bent-compromised central vision and the demand for brighter light to do close-up work. The patient also shows signs of exacerbated difficulty adapting to a low level of light, particularly when entering a poorly lit room. The patient also finds the brightness or intensity of colors reduced when in the actual sense they are not. The patient may also have difficulties in identifying faces and developing a blind spot in the field of vision.

With regard to treatment, the most recommended and commonly applied treatment for macular degeneration is anti-VEGF therapy. However, most importantly, there is no proven cure for macular degeneration (Li, 2021). Consequently, the available treatments are meant only to manage the condition.

Essay 4

Mental illness can be treated or prevented depending on the cause and type. The concept of mental illnesses simply means health conditions encompassing adverse changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, or all of these factors. The common mental health issues includ stress, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, depression, dissociative disorders, personality problems, cerebral palsy, gender dysphoria, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Franklyn, 2020). Most of the mental health issues can be treated and prevented. Stress, trauma, hallucinations, and cerebral palsy are some of the common mental illnesses that affect people in society.

Stress and trauma can be managed through psychotherapy from professional therapists. Patients can heal completely if their condition is properly managed. It is also imperative to note that most stresses heal without individuals seeking treatment. A person can also manage stress and trauma by avoiding thinking too much about a stressful or traumatizing event (Franklyn, 2020). To attain this, one ought to accept reality, find something to distract him or her from something that is causing stress or trauma.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) can cure post-traumatic stress disorder, personality disorder, and stress. Mental health issues are usually treated using techniques of behavior management (Franklyn, 2020). At the same time, for psychotic cases, an-psychotic drugs or antidepressants can be used to treat the diseases, sometimes in combination with psychotherapy.

The early wining signs of mental illness include throwing tantrums over slight provocation or without cause, social withdrawal, extreme paranoia, anxiety, excessive sadness, lasting irritability, great and lasting changes in moods, extreme changes in sleeping pattern-often lack of sleep, loss of touch with happenings, hallucination, and excessive energy or extremely low energy (Franklyn, 2020). The manifestation of these sign varies from one mental health to another, but they are initial signs of mental health problems.

I feel there is a social stigma around some or all mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorders. Some society members treat mentally ill persons as outcasts or people suffering some form of curses (Franklyn, 2020). The stigmatization affects access to treatment, hence aggravating the mental health challenges.

References (2021). Meningitis | CDC.

Cuilfoile, P., & Babcock, H. (2008). Tetanus. New York, NY: Chelsea House.

Franklyn, K. (2020). Mental Health Issues. LULU COM.

Kusum, M. (2019). A Clinico Epidemiological Study of Elderly Patients (≥60 Years) Suffering from Presbycusis Visiting Tertiary Centre at Gorakhpur District. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research, 7(5).

Li, W. (2021). Age-related macular degeneration. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Shrader, A. L. (2014). Meningitis: Symptoms, management & potential complications. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

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