More Common Pathophysiological Changes and Abnormal Findings, Symptoms and Effects

Describe some of the more common pathophysiological changes and abnormal findings associated with:

 Musculoskeletal dysfunctions.

Pathophysiological changes in the musculoskeletal system can result from inflammatory diseases, injury, infection or tumors (Falkner, & Green, 2018). Alterations such as muscle atrophy and bone loss are both linked to prolonged bedrest and aging process. The conditions of joints include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and spondylitis. The conditions that affect bones include osteopenia, osteoporosis, traumatic fracture. Musculoskeletal conditions of the spine are neck pain and back pain.

Metabolic Dysfunction

Metabolic dysfunction increases the risk of developing chronic conditions. Distressed body due to infection, autoimmune disease, surgery or birth defect, disrupts normal secretion of appropriate hormones. This interference causes manifestation of signs and symptoms associated with hormone regulation interruption. Hormone interruptions leads to chronic health conditions like diabetes mellitus, polycystic syndrome and Cushing’s syndrome (Falkner, & Green, 2018).  Changes in blood glucose is responsible for diabetes and other conditions. Obesity is a metabolic disturbance that can result in serious musculoskeletal complications. Obesity-induced sarcopenia is implicated in adverse health outcomes. Muscle mass, which is responsible for body glucose utilization, undergoes remodeling to repair tissues. The impairment of the muscle results in insulin resistance. In addition, impaired muscle integrity is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction (Sanchez-Lopez, Cheng, & Guma, 2019).

Multisystem Health

Multisystem dysfunction refers to progressive physiological dysfunction of at least two organ systems. Like musculoskeletal and metabolic dysfunctions, multisystem dysfunction result from infection, injury or illness, causing a condition of hypometabolism and immunodepression (Sanchez-Lopez, Cheng, & Guma, 2019). Kidney, liver, heart and lungs are the most commonly affected organs.  Diabetes, if not properly managed, can affect the entire circulation and heart. The damage begins with increased blood glucose and insulin and proceeds to damage the blood vessels in the nerves, kidneys, brain and heart (Nickson, 2019). Cardiovascular disease causes disability and even death in diabetic patients. insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis (Falkner, & Green, 2018).

Explain what symptoms are associated with the findings and how these affect patient function.

Musculoskeletal disorders are characterized by pain and limitation in dexterity and mobility and level of functioning, lowering one’s ability to perform daily life tasks. Pain is the common symptom of a musculoskeletal disorder. Other common symptoms may include tenderness, edema, numbness, joint noises, inflammation, muscle spasms, stiffness, reduced range of movement and increased warmth (Falkner, & Green, 2018). Rheumatoid arthritis in which overactive immune system attack health tissues causes inflammation resulting in the destruction of connective tissues. Infections, tissue injury, obesity and autoimmune disease can lead to inflammation. While some of these responses resolve by themselves, others are persistent and exert sustained impact. Untreated inflammation causes loss of function and deformity. Osteoarthritis leads to the degeneration of protective cartilage, triggering an inflammatory reaction. Musculoskeletal conditions limit dexterity and mobility, resulting in lower levels of wellbeing, decreased ability to work and early retirement from employment.

Disorders linked to metabolic syndrome have no obvious symptoms. Clinical manifestation of metabolic dysfunctions includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, high blood glucose levels, high cholesterol, insulin and hypertriglyceridemia (Falkner, & Green, 2018). In case of diabetes, the symptom include fatigue, increased urination and thirst, blurred vision and large waist circumference.

Organ dysfunction often present as acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal dysfunction, acute respiratory disease syndrome, neurological dysfunction, hepatic dysfunction and cardiomyopathy. The microvascular and macrovascular damage to the blood vessels causes cerebrovascular accident (Falkner, & Green, 2018). The microvascular damage increases the risk of renal damage.


Nickson, C. (2019). Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. Life in the Fastlane. Retrieved on June 1, 2021 from

Falkner, A., & Green, S.Z. (2018). Musculoskeletal, Metabolism, and Multisystem Complexities. In Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Client Health. Retrieved on June 1, 2021

Sanchez-Lopez, E., Cheng, A., & Guma, M. (2019). Can Metabolic Pathways Be Therapeutic Targets in Rheumatoid Arthritis? Journal Clinical Medicine, 8(5): 753. doi: 10.3390/jcm8050753. Retrieved on June 1, 2021

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