Globalization and its Impact on global Security

Globalization and its Impact on global Security


This paper will look into the impact that globalization has on international security. Globalization in international relations has been regarded as an inevitable force in the modern world today, which is necessary for any country in order to achieve economic development. Globalization has also had an impact on global security in both the negative and positive manner.  The various bodies which enhance international security such the United Nations will be looked into and how it has been able to enhance global security giving relevant examples. International regimes such as the United Nations will be examined on how it has been able to spread democracy which has been the ideal form of governance that promotes international security. Issues of human rights will also be briefly discussed showing how some states have been unable to implement well the issue of human rights  and  how such states may eventually be forced to corporate with international institutions  via the process of globalization.

Globalization and its Impact on global Security

The concept globalization can be said to be a process which has been enforced by the rapid development in the information communications technology over the passed years. However, Globalization can be a complex term to define this is due to the fact that many scholars would define globalization from the perspective of their own discipline for instance in economics. In the discipline of international relations globalization can be defined as a process through which states are internationalized and made to be the subjects of international laws. Globalization also encompasses international non-governmental organizations and social movement. It is through these kinds of organizations such as the United Nations that various member states are expected to be subject to the international laws so as to promote international peace and security (Pieterse, 2009).

Toulmin, described the Globalization as “both an historical fact and a political football” (Pieterse p7).The process of globalization is said to be a force that has crossed national boundaries, hence the undermining the sovereignty of a state. This has resulted into the emergence of many political challenges, because it results into a sudden paradigm shift from an age of a sovereign state to an international political system (Pieterse, 2009).

The rapid technological movement is considered to be one of the major factors that have farther promoted globalization this is because states are able to interact in a shorter time than before. Advancement in technology has thus made the world to be a smaller place for instance when a state faces a crucial issue it may also easily affect other states. Despite globalization having so many advantages in terms of economic development through regional integration there are also the negative aspect of globalization which can be seen through the issue of international security (Pieterse, 2009).

The processes of globalization have made the world a smaller place, and those with malicious intentions disguise themselves in international institutions. It is, therefore, hard to detect who is who and what role they have in the global community. The advancement in technology has resulted into all sorts’ international security breach through criminal activities such as cybercrime. It is through cyber crime that many state websites are hacked into and all the top secret information of a country is leaked, for instance in the case of wikileaks where a lot of information regarding the United states and its foreign policies were leaked. This was a form of threat to the government and the United States of America. Cybercrime is a global problem which is fostered by a group of individuals who have an idealistic cause and want the world to know that. The internet being the source of all information was, therefore an ideal platform for such groups like that of wikileaks to be heard. Cyber crime is hence a form of international terror committed in the virtual world but ends up have a significant impact on the a countries security (Beer, 2011).

Issues regarding security has changed overtime particularly the toady after the cold war, where the issue  of security has been  more politicized especially with the emergence of an international political system. Security issues have gone beyond the borders of a state. Initially the state used to use force within its borders, however since the terrorist attack in the United states on September 2011, the United states has been using force on other countries justify  it as a war against terror (Fierke, 2007).

The past conflicts in region such as south Asia, the Persian Gulf, and Korean peninsula can be said to be matters of international security. Issues of international securities can be said to have emerged during the cold war period up to the present day. However it is also important to note that most of the third world countries had not yet received independence.  The third world countries have been challenged by the issue of international security. The organization which are known to  promote peace and unity among the African region have been criticized to do so especially in cases of Somalia However, it is also important to note that military organization such as  NATO have more experience and expertise  than the African Union. In order to contain conflict in a region it is important to understand and respect of the regional autonomy and the activities which have to be carried out by the various organizations through regional security measures and also global arrangements (Krause &Williams, 1997).

Other issues concerning the international security, is also known as climate change. The climate does not only affect third world countries but also the developed countries, because they also have a role to ensure that there is sustainable development. The issue of climate change took a long time to emerge as a global threat especially to those living in the third world countries. Climate change is an issue that requires the cooperation of all international bodies including the various states. There have been so many conventions regarding  the issue of climate change since the early 1990’s.One of the most influential  convention is the Kyoto protocol regarding the issue on the reduction of carbon emissions  by the developed countries. Despite the protocol triggering mass actions by many interest groups and civil societies, it is important to note that the Kyoto protocol does not apply to many of the main emitters of carbon. These main emitters own many multinational corporations which have various industries in the third world countries. The international environmental regime has also been greatly hampered by, the many disagreement on how to deal with the issue. There is, therefore, a constant dialogue between the northern and Southern countries which has not yet yielded any fruit (Steinar & Boasson, 2012).

Other than the issue of climate change there had also been a lot of tension regarding for instance the issue in the conservation of the forests for instance the forest fires in Indonesia in 1997.The tension was politician as it affected many south East Asian states whose economic security was threatened due to the forest fires which affected the tourism industry. The region had to respond to the situation in solidarity since the burning of forest had farther environmental implications other than the economic security. The response of the crisis was due to global pressure from international regimes. Globalization has thus had a positive impact on global security through the environmental regimes (Chen, n.d.).

After the collapse of the Soviet Union the United States seemed to be the most influential global power. The United States values of democracy, liberalism capitalism and started spreading at a fast rate. Countries which did not have a liberal market such as China was regarded as inferior and not able to get achieve economic development. The United States army   was also seen as the army   which could provide global security and stability. However, this slowly changed as an attitude of skepticism started growing against the United States as the only superpower (Wenger & Zimmerman, 2003).

It is also important to note that the southern countries due to there current economic circumstances are sometimes made to compromise on their priorities because they are not as powerful as the northern countries. The northern countries also hold powerful positions, for instance the security council of the United Nations has five permanent members of the United Nations who happen to be from the northern developed countries. Any decision which is made at the Security Council is thus more influenced by the northern countries and the southern county has no say. This means that sometimes the southern countries are forced to act according to what the northern countries state and end up compromising on their security issues (Alter & Meunier, 2009).

The process of globalization has thus greatly challenges international security. Especially when one looks at how many different international actors try and prove a point and at the same time  make a mark. What makes the matter even worse is the selfish interest of other States yet we live in a global world today. Even though there are many economical developments which can be seen through the formation the regional organization. It is also important to note that the economy is not the only issue being globalize but also violence. There is a multiplication of many criminal organizations and mafia groups. War lords and drug lords are, thus, able to manipulate through the international systems through the black markets threatening the security of other individuals they meet with during their interaction in different countries. War lords are able to have access to illegal arms and ammunition while drug barons are able to supply drugs in a more efficient manner (Gamba, 2005).

Even though globalization is said to be a complex system in the perspective of international relations, international organizations have to some extent managed to maintain peace and security. When a member state wants to attack another country in form of protest or revenge they have to consult the Security Council. This is because if they attack without any consultation economic sanctions will applied to these countries which refuse to abide by the various rules and regulations. However, it seems like it is only the powerful which can get away with such actions especially the war in Iraq during the Bush administration. The government of the United States decided to invade Iraq despite not having any approval from the Security Council. The United States was allied by countries like Britain in the invasion of Iraq. The United Nations hence has a challenge in preventing such actions of superpowers which take advantage of their position in the Security Council and as a super power to take an action which is unjust (Lippe, n.d.).

The process of globalization has also enabled many countries that have been under the leadership of a dictatorial government   to protest and eventually overthrow their government. This can especially be seen through the Arab revolution. Gaddafi was overthrown and killed by the people that he once dictated. With the availability of technology where people can communicate in a more efficient way individuals were able to form small groups which eventually group as large crowds. These groups were   driven people who shared similar sentiments regarding the Gaddafi regime. This had an impact on global security especially when you look at the situation where Gaddaffi attacked his own people causing many people to die. This was an act of terror against his own people. The international community had to intervene and help the citizens of Libya. It thus not only the State actors and non state actor who have more influence the on global security but individual citizens. The NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) allies had to intervene and protect the citizens from attacks. The presence of NATO was thus able to influence the restoration of peace in Libya. The internationalization of institutions and states being members of international bodies such as the United States has empowered people to fight for their rights even if they are under a dictatorial government. This is because the international community eventually intervenes to salvage the situation. The process of globalization can thus be said to be inevitable, people have to (Shah, 2011).

The security of a state is today more influenced by non-state actors through the Brent Wood institutions known as the World Bank, IMF and WTO. These organizations dictate on how states should act in order to benefit from the global economy. Such conditions have made states to take part in the process of globalization. In some situations for instance in the world trade centre organizations states have been willing to change their policies so that they can maximize their gains (Chen, n.d.).

Globalization has thus led to political groups taking sides with groups which have similar interest. Such allies who are formed may threaten the security of other countries. The most influential countries like the super powers that hold the permanent positions in the United Nations can thus always manipulate through the system and use their position as an opportunity to meet their public needs. It is also important to note that other international organizations depend on funds from the powerful states in order to get funds. This put these kinds of organizations in a vulnerable position to carry out its mandate which are related to global peace and security. On the other hand, such organizations have their own interest for instance they may just have to follow and agree to the terms and conditions so that they can keep their jobs.

A Globalized world is composed of many state actors, non-state actors and international civil society. It has, therefore, become more difficult to come up with measures to enhance global security without involving or consulting other actors in the globalized community. It is also important to note that multinational corporations have a role to play in enhancing and promoting global security. However the multinational cooperation’s are greatly influenced by the politics of their country of origin. The process of globalization can thus be said to be inevitable, because people already find themselves in a globalized community and the only way that they can adapt to these changes is by looking at how they can benefit from the global community not only as individuals but also as the non-state actors such as the non governmental international organizations. It is therefore through the advantages and disadvantages  of globalization that issues of global security and insecurity arise.


Andresen, S & Boasson, E. L (2012).International Climate Cooperation: Clear Recommendations, Weak Commitments New York: Rutledge.

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Pursue Their Security’ How Inevitable Is Globalization And What Is Its Connection To Security? Retrieved 29th February 2012 from:

Fierke, K.M. (2007).Critical approaches to international security

Malden, MA: Polity press.

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